WASHINGTON — Corn and soybean yield estimates for 2012 were slightly above earlier expectations, but remained below trend as a result of the heat and drought conditions.

According to the U.S. Department Agriculture’s final estimates for 2012 crop production, corn took the biggest hit with an average U.S. yield of 123.4 bushels per acre, 23.8 bushels below the 2011 average yield.

Corn for grain production is estimated at 10.8 billion bushels, up 1 percent from the Nov. 1 forecast, but 13 percent below 2011.

Area harvested for grain was estimated at 87.4 million acres, down slightly from the November forecast, but up 4 percent from 2011.

Soybean production in 2012 totaled 3.01 billion bushels, up 1 percent from the Nov. 1 forecast, but down 3 percent from 2011.

The average yield per acre is estimated at 39.6 bushels, 0.3 bushel above the November forecast, but 2.3 bushels below last year’s yield. Harvested area is up 3 percent from 2011 to 76.1 million acres and is the third highest on record.

The U.S. winter wheat planted area for harvest in 2013 is estimated at 41.8 million acres, up 1 percent from 2012 and 3 percent above 2011.

Seeding began last August, but by the middle of September was behind the five-year average as producers waited for improved soil moisture levels.

However, by the end of October, seeding had progressed ahead of last year and the five-year average. More acres were seeded this year due to the early row crop harvest and higher prices, according to USDA.

The report also included crop production information from individual states.

Illinois production of corn for grain totaled 1.286 billion bushels in 2012, well below 2011 production of 1.947 billion bushels.

The final yield in Illinois was 105 bushels per acre, 52 bushels below last year. This was the lowest yield since 1988, when yield stood at 73 bushels per acre.

Acres planted in 2012 were up 200,000 from 2011 at 12.8 million for Illinois, and 12.25 million acres were harvested for grain. Low yields pushed farmers to harvest more of the crop for silage than is typical.

Indiana planted 6.25 million acres of corn for all purposes and harvested 6.03 million acres, above the previous year’s totals of 5.9 million and 5.75 million acres, respectively.

Indiana’s average corn yield was 99 bushels per acre in 2012, 47 bushels less than in 2011 and 58 bushels less than in 2010.

This is the lowest average corn yield in Indiana since 1991, when it fell to 92 bushels per acre. The average yield was 83 bushels in 1988.

Total corn production in Indiana was 596.97 million bushels compared to 839.5 million in 2011 and 898.04 million two years ago.

About 14.2 million corn acres were planted for all purposes in Iowa, and 13.7 million acres were harvested, matching the 2011 total.

The average corn yield for Iowa was 137 bushels per acre compared to 172 in 2011 and 165 in 2010. This is Iowa’s lowest yield since 123 bushels per acre in 1995.

Iowa’s total corn production reached nearly 1.877 billion bushels. The state produced more than 2.356 billion bushels in 2011.

The final yield for the 2012 Illinois soybean crop was 43 bushels per acre, 4.5 bushels below 2011. This was the lowest yield since 2003, when yield stood at 37 bushels per acre.

Illinois soybean production in 2012 reached 383,560,000 bushels, down about 10 percent from 2011.

Acres planted in 2012 were up 100 thousand from 2011 to 9.05 million acres. Acres harvested in 2012 stood at 8.92 million.

Indiana farmers planted 5.15 million soybean acres and harvested 5.14 million acres, compared to 5.3 million and 5.29 million acres, respectively, in 2011.

Total soybean production in Indiana reached nearly 223.6 million bushels with an average yield of 43.5 bushels per acre, two bushels less than in 2011 and five less than in 2010.

Iowa had 9.35 million soybean acres in 2012, the same as in 2011, and harvested all but 50,000 acres. Iowa’s 2012 average soybean yield was estimated at 44.5 bushels per acre, resulting in a total production of 413.85 million bushels.

More than 475.34 million bushels of soybeans were produced in Iowa in 2011 from an average yield of 51.5 bushels per acre, one-half bushel less than in 2010.

An estimated 830,000 acres of winter wheat were seeded in Illinois in the fall of 2012, 26 percent more than in 2011. While seedings for the 2013 crop have increased by 170,000 acres over the previous year, the increase is only 30,000 acres over the 2011 crop.

Winter wheat seedings in Indiana increased from 350,000 acres in 2012 to 450,000 acres for 2013. The state planted 430,000 acres of winter wheat in 2011.

Iowa planted 40,000 acres of winter wheat for 2013, a substantial increase over 18,000 acres in 2012 and 22,000 acres in 2011.